Abstract: This paper is released to inform interested parties of research and to encourage discussion. The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Census Bureau; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the National Institutes of Health; or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, any views expressed on statistical, methodological, technical, or operational issues are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Census Bureau. These results have been reviewed by the Census Bureaus Disclosure Review Board (DRB) to ensure that no confidential information is disclosed. The DRB release numbers are: CBDRB-FY19-310 and CBDRB-FY19-400. The authors gratefully acknowledge the help of J. Clint Carter and John Sullivan in accessing restricted-use Census data. The authors would also like to thank Andrew Goodman-Bacon, Alex Hollingsworth, Jon Gruber, Helen Levy, Kosali Simon, and Ben Sommers for helpful comments and participants at the American Society of Health Economics, Midwest Health Economics Conference, and NBER Summer Institute Health Care meeting. Wherry benefited from facilities and resources provided by the California Center for Population Research at UCLA, which receives core support (R24-HD041022) from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.